Assigned to :
• Amaro, Elfe C.
• Balansag, Imee S.
Research Paper Outline
1. Origin and Formation
a. How did sediments and sedimentary rocks originate?
b. What are the four (4) components or earth materials that make up or constitute sedimentary rocks?
c. What are the major types of basins on which sediments accumulate and form sedimentary rocks?
a. How do we describe sedimentary rock types?
i. In hand specimen and outcrop (megascopic / mesoscopic view)
ii. In the microscope
b. What criteria are used to identify sedimentary rocks?
i. Stratification and sedimentary structures
ii. Specific sedimentary minerals
iii. Fossils and other biogenic materials
iv. Clastic components – size, texture, mineralogy
a. How do we classify sedimentary rocks?
4. Field Recognition and Mapping Sedimentary Rock Units
i. What fossils can be found in specific sedimentary rock types?
ii. Sedimentary structures, textures and features
iii. Depositional environments
5. Key Philippine Sedimentary Formations – examples and location (reference : GOP)
a. Southern Negros
6. What mineral deposits or other economic geologic resources can be sourced from sedimentary rocks in the Philippines?
a. Oil and gas
c. Limestone for cement
e. Mineral sands
• The research paper should be written in MS Word format
• Diagrams, maps, tables and photos are to be embedded in the paper
Origin and Formation
For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.
Sedimentary Rocks occur when sediments, weathered fragments from older rocks as well as biological debris like leaves, trees, and dead animals, are deposited and stay in place long enough for rock to form. Some sedimentary rocks include sandstones, shales, and coal seams. Sedimentary deposits are very important in economic geology for they include coal seams and oil deposits.
Sandstone rocks are sedimentary rocks made from small grains of the minerals quartz and feldspar. They often form in layers as seen in this picture. They are often used as building stones.
Limestone rocks are sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite which came from the beds of evaporated seas and lakes and from sea animal shells. This rock is used in concrete and is an excellent building stone for humid regions.
Shale rock is a type of sedimentary rock formed from clay that is compacted together by pressure. They are used to make bricks and other material that is fired in a kiln.
Conglomerate rocks are sedimentary rocks. They are made up of large sediments like sand and pebbles. The sediment is so large that pressure alone cannot hold the rock together; it is also cemented together with dissolved minerals.
Gypsum rocks are sedimentary rocks made up of sulfate mineral and formed as the result of evaporating sea water in massive prehistoric basins. It is very soft and is used to make Plaster of Paris, casts, molds, and wallboards.
|The formation of sediment and sedimentary rocks involves five processes: ...
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