Prepositions

Topics: Question, Grammar, English language Pages: 10 (3687 words) Published: March 31, 2014


Comparison of Negative Sentence in English and Vietnamese

University of education
Supervisor: Nguyễn Ngọc Vũ
Name: Nguyễn Lê Ngọc Hà
Class: 5BT.05

Introduction
Any language in the world also serves the demand of communication of human beings. However, each language has its origin, characteristics and values. As an example, English and Vietnamese are two different languages in many aspects. Among these aspects, we all know that grammatical feature is the basic matter and the most important one that we should pay attention to during learning English as a second language. In my opinion, in learning English grammar, negation causes many troubles to learners in distinguishing it with negation in Vietnamese as well as using it in true way because of differences between two languages. However, in some cases, there are also similarities between them. Because of importance of using negation in real life, I would like to research about rules of forming and using negative sentences in English and Vietnamese so that readers have a general look about negative sentences of English as well as of Vietnamese. I hope that knowledge of negative sentence will help me in teaching English in the future. In my topic, I will present the definition of negative sentence and some basic kinds of negative sentence in English. Then, through presenting all characteristics of forming and using English negative sentence into details, I will give comparison with Vietnamese negative sentence and some examples to illustrate the theory that I mentioned. Finally, I will express my ideas of using English negation in teaching as the most important aim in my research. Definition of negative sentence

Until now, in many research papers, linguists have various views of definition of negative sentence. One of them thinks that negative sentence is one in which negative adverbs (không, chẳng, chớ, đừng, chưa…) are placed after verbs or adjectives to reflect the negation. Another linguist states that there are six kinds of negative sentences, which include negative sentences are formed by single negative words (không, chưa, chẳng, chả,…) and formed by negative phrases ( không phải là, chưa phải là, không đời nào, không bao giờ, chẳng đời nào…). Actually, there is not the accurate and exact definition of negative sentence but we all can understand that a negative sentence (or statement) states that something is not true or incorrect. Formation and use of negative sentences in English and Vietnamese According the linguist, Lê Quang Thiêm, there are many ways of classifying negative sentence. Among of them, by basing on the methods and means of constructing a negation, negative sentence in English can be classified into four types: 1. Auxiliary negation

2. Noun phrase negation
3. Adverb negation
4. Morphological negation
We will gradually analyze them with examples and make a comparison with negation in Vietnamese to clarify differences as well as similarities of negative sentence between two languages. Firstly, with auxiliary negation, English and Vietnamese have the same rule of forming a negation in sentence. In English, in order to form a negative sentence, “not” is placed after an auxiliary verb or “be” in the positive one. In the following table of an article, the author gave a review of negation in English sentence with some examples. Among examples, some use the contracted forms more used in informal writing and speech, and some others use the full forms. Tense

Negative element + contracted forms
Examples
Present Simple
do+not = don’t
does+not = doesn’t
I do not play.
She doesn’t play.
Past Simple
did+not = didn’t
I didn’t play.
Present Progressive
am + not = am not
(*no amn’t)
is+not = isn’t
are+not = aren't
I am not playing.

Past Progressive
was+not = wasn’t
were+not = weren’t
I wasn’t...
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