PRESTON INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE
THE MUGHAL EMPIRE IN INDIA
NAME: M.NISHA SULTANA
CLASS: IIIRD YEAR B.A
SUBJECT: ISLAMIC HISTORY
DEPARTMENT: ISLAMIC STUDIES
PREPARED FOR: JUNAID IBRAHIM
ACADAMIC YEAR: 2013-2014
PRAISE TO BE ALLAH(SWT)
PRAISE BE TO ALLAH, WE SEEEK HIS HELP AND FORGIVENESS. WE SEEK REFUGE WITH ALLAH FROM EVIL OF OUR OWN SOULS AND BAD DEEDS. WHOMSOEVER ALLAH GUIDES WILL NEVER BE LED ASTRAY AND WHOMSOVER ALLAH LEAVES ASTRAY, NO ONE CAN GUIDE. I BEAR WITNESS THAT THERE IS NO GOD BUT ALLAH AND I BEAR WITNESS THAT MUHAMMAD IS HIS SLAVE AND HIS MESSENGER
Chapter one: The Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled parts of what is todays Afghanistan, Pakistan and most of the Indian Subcontinent, then known as Hindustan, between 1526 and 1707. The empire was founded by the Timurid leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. "Mughal" is the Persian word for "Mongol". The religion of the Mughals was Islam. The territory was largely conquered by the Afghan Sher Shah Suri during the time of Humayun, the second Mughal ruler, but under Akbar it grew considerably, and continued to grow until the end of Aurangzeb's rule. Jahangir, the son of Akbar, ruled the empire between 1605–1627. In October 1627, Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, son of Jahangir, "succeeded to the throne", where he "inherited a vast and rich empire" in India; and "at mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world". Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal (between 1630–1653), in Agra. The Mughals faced stiff competition from the Marathas, and after Aurangzeb died in 1707, the empire started to decline in actual power, giving way to the rise of the Hindu Maratha Empire. The Mughals however managed to maintain some trappings of power in the India for another 150 years. In 1739 it was defeated by an army from Persia led by Nadir Shah. In 1756 an army of Ahmed Shah Abdali took Delhi again. The British Empire finally dissolved it in 1857, immediately prior to which it existed only at the sufferance of the British East India Company. Religion
The Mughal ruling class were liberal-minded Muslims, although most of the subjects of the Empire were Hindu. Although Babur founded the Empire, the dynasty remained unstable (and was even exiled) until the reign of Akbar, who was not only of liberal disposition but also intimately acquainted, since birth, with the mores and traditions of India. Under Akbar's rule, the court abolished the jizya (the poll-tax on non-Muslims) and abandoned use of the lunar Muslim calendar in favor of a solar calendar more useful for agriculture. One of Akbar's most unusual ideas regarding religion was Din-i-Ilahi ("Faith-of-God" in English), which was an eclectic mix of Hinduism, panthiestic versions of Sufi Islam,Zoroastrianism and Christianity. It was proclaimed the state religion until his death. These actions however met with stiff opposition from the Muslim clergy. However, the orthodoxy regained influence only three generations later, with Aurangzeb, known for upholding doctrines of orthodox Islam; this last of the Great Mughals retracted nearly all the liberal policies of his forbears.
Establishment and reign of Babur
In the early 16th century, Muslim armies consisting of Mongol, Turkic, Persian, and Afghan warriors invaded India under the leadership of the Timurid prince Zahir-ud-Din-Mohammad Babur. Babur was the great-grandson of Mongol conqueror Timur Lenk (Timur the Lame, from which the Western name Tamerlane is derived), who had invaded India in 1398 before retiring to Samarkand who himself claimed descent from the Mongol ruler, Genghis Khan. Babur was driven from Samarkand by the Uzbeks and initially established his rule in Kabul in 1504. Later, taking advantage of internal discontent in the Delhi...
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