COmputer science

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Main article: History of computer science

Charles Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer.

Ada Lovelace is credited with writing the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer. The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.

Blaise Pascal designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator, Pascal's calculator, in 1642.[3] In 1673 Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the 'Stepped Reckoner'.[4] He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry[5] when he released his simplified arithmometer, which was the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his difference engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine.[6] He started developing this machine in 1834 and "in less than two years he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer. A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom"[7] making it infinitely programmable.[8] In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the analytical engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, which is considered to be the first computer program.[9] Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator which used punched cards to process statistical information; eventually his company became part of...
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