Nature of Man
Man has evolved for hundreds or even thousands of years but there are things that didn’t change in him like human habits, instincts, and behaviour. Wrath, for example is a man’s nature wherein he puts all his effort to overpower the opposition. Man is truly a competitive creature. Another nature of man is Avarice, avarice is when one finds something desirable and he will immediately want all of it or want all the possible quantity he can get. Greed is an example of Avarice. Niggardliness, another human nature wherein a person who so much value his possessions as to not allow anyone to even have a touch, glimpse, taste, etc. for his possession. Covetousness or envy is a nature of man which is a lust for possession that someone has. The last nature of man is Pride, pride is when someone who is good at something then being strict on someone who is not good at what he is doing, its like putting himself in superiority amongst those who cannot par with him (A. Robson, 1940).
Cruelty of Man
Kathleen Taylor is of the view that cruelty is the epitome of human evil. She has two claims about the cruelty of man. The first is that cruelty is not the domain of evil man or in-born evildoers. Rather, much cruel behaviour is rational, that is, it is done because of reasons which seem rather good to the perpetrators at the time, and can be done by people. She said that even in the most extreme act of cruelty, the perpetrators know what they are doing. The second claim of her book is that there is a difference between someone who is hurling verbal abuse and to someone who is beating someone to death and there is a difference in degree not in kind. You can now imagine a continuum of cruelty, from mildest to the most extreme acts, thoughts, and behaviours. David Frankfurter notes in his book on myths of evil conspiracy, ‘evil’, like ‘cruel’, is used to distance its target from the self or the in group, pushing away entities we do not want to resemble from those who are like us. Kathleen Taylor also states that cruelty is a moral concept, closely related to other moral concepts such as punishment, justification, and responsibility. Also, cruelty, first and foremost, is doing harm Webster Dictionary defines cruelty as an act which causes pain or suffering in which the doer is at best indifferent to, at worst gratified by, the suffering he/she causes. Cruelty is about qualities of character and behaviour; persons and their actions are labelled as ‘cruel’. Behaviour comes first. Cruel is extended from action to the perpetrator primarily because of behaviour, and then later, given stereotypes, to other aspects of person such as savage appearance, fierce expression, or vicious reputation. We can extend cruelty within the skull—to thoughts, desires, and intentions—but even these have to be articulated, whether internally or externally, expresses in action or speech. Only then, having given life by action, can they be judged and labelled cruel. Human beings naturally use the language of agency. Agency is that power of voluntary choice; the level of control over and ownership of one’s actions considered typical of healthy adult humans. We think in terms of beliefs or desires, intentions and reason to act. K. Taylor (2009), concludes that cruelty is as old as humankind, if not older. Its core lies unjustified voluntary behaviour which causes foreseeable suffering to a victim or victims. It can be physical aggression or psychologically as long as it causes pain and suffering.
Reasons Why Humans Do Harm
Kathleen Taylor states that humans have evolved automatic response to threats. Because of pathogens, poisons, predators changed only slowly; threats allowed them to develop specific ‘program’ threat responses—physiological changes, feelings, and behaviours which were triggered automatically by certain stimuli. Humans have evolved instincts of predation and scavenging. This reason is why humans learned how to hurt, and also...
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